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    [–] Was writing(For art and business) a common ability for new men of the 14th century? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Hello there. Unfortunately we have had to remove your question as it looks like it may be a homework question. A couple of things to keep in mind about this: Our rules DO permit people to ask for help with their homework, so long as they are seeking clarification or resources, rather than the answer itself. Also: Sometimes flairs can be reluctant to answer a question that looks like homework, because they don't want to be involved in plagiarism (and sadly, yes, there are those who plagiarize reddit comments).

    But, that all said, many of our users do enjoy helping out with suggestions for resources and further reading. Can you tell us what you've researched so far, what resources you've consulted, and what you've learned? If that doesn't work, you can also consider asking the helpful people at /r/HomeworkHelp. If you edit your post to be in compliance with our requirements for homework related questions, which are explored in more detail in this META Thread, we would be happy to restore it.

    Additionally, we would highly suggest that you check out our six part series on 'Finding and Understanding Sources', which might prove to be useful in your research.

    [–] When and How did Prostitution End in America? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    I'm sorry, but this is not an acceptable basis for an answer in this subreddit, so I have had to remove your comment. In the future, please keep in mind our subreddit rules, specifically what we are looking for in an answer, before attempting to tackle a question here. For further discussion on how sourcing works in this subreddit, please consult this thread. Thank you!

    [–] When and How did Prostitution End in America? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    This submission has been removed because it involves current events. To keep from discussion of politics, we have a 20-year rule here. You may want to try /r/ask_politics or another current-events focused sub. For further explanation of this rule, feel free to consult this Rules Roundtable.

    [–] Following a recent trend among amateur youtube historians. I am a Modern state of the art soldier sent back in time by a phenomenon to two different periods what happens? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Sorry, but your submission has been removed because we don't allow hypothetical questions. If possible, please feel free to rephrase the question so that it does not call for such speculation, and resubmit. Otherwise, this sort of thing is better suited for /r/HistoryWhatIf. You can find a more in-depth discussion of this rule here.

    [–] If I knew any currently spoken language and went back in time 2,000 years, who would I be able to communicate effectively with? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Sorry, we don't allow "example seeking" questions. It's not that your question was bad; it's that these kinds of questions tend to produce threads that are collections of disjointed, partial, inadequate responses. If you have a question about a specific historical event, period, or person, feel free to rewrite your question and submit it again. If you don't want to rewrite it, you might try submitting it to /r/history, /r/askhistory, or /r/tellmeafact.

    For further explanation of the rule, feel free to consult this META thread.

    [–] The distinction between indentured servitude and chattel slavery appears to be a live-wire topic in American politico-academic discourse. How do these retrospective definitions interrelate with the modern definition of slavery by the United Nations; which estimates 40 million contemporary slaves? jschooltiger 0 points ago in AskHistorians

    1) Please don't summon people by username here.

    2) The mod-team has been discussing your question, and think it's answerable if you can revise and resubmit it. Specifically: there is a very real debate in slavery studies as a broad, comparative discipline that now exists mostly between historians (arguing for a narrow definition of slavery) and political/social scientists (arguing for a broader one), and the latter offer one of the few areas of genuine scholarly argument where you might get indentured servitude treated as slavery (their argument boils down to 'slavery is an emotionally powerful word and saving lives today by is more important than historical nitty-grittiness). If you were to remove the quote from the ILO report, so that it will have less of a chance of veering into modern politics, you may be able to have it answered in historiographical terms.

    Thanks!

    [–] Why is the Korean War not adapted into movies and tv like every other war? jschooltiger 1 points ago * (lasted edited 3 hours ago) in AskHistorians

    Hi folks,

    If you're coming here to say "M*A*S*H is set during the Korean War!" but have nothing else to say, please don't clutter up the thread. A comprehensive answer to this question, as our rules require would deal with the subject of historical memory of the Korean War in popular culture, not just an example of a show that uses the war as its setting.

    Thanks!

    [–] What are some lesser-known (but crucial) details of the Alaska Purchase? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Sorry, we don't allow "example seeking" questions. It's not that your question was bad; it's that these kinds of questions tend to produce threads that are collections of disjointed, partial, inadequate responses. If you have a question about a specific historical event, period, or person, feel free to rewrite your question and submit it again. If you don't want to rewrite it, you might try submitting it to /r/history, /r/askhistory, or /r/tellmeafact.

    For further explanation of the rule, feel free to consult this META thread.

    [–] Is there any way I can find out what bomber group my great-grandad flew with? jschooltiger 2 points ago in AskHistorians

    Hello there! As your question is related to looking for identification/information regarding military personnel, our Guide on Military Identification may be of use to you. It provides a number of different resources, including how to request service records from a number of national agencies around the world, as well as graphical aids to assist in deciphering rank, unit, and other forms of badges or insignia. While the users here may still be able to lend you more assistance, hopefully this will provide a good place to start!

    [–] Is there any way I can find out what bomber group my great-grandad flew with? jschooltiger 3 points ago in AskHistorians

    This is absolutely a subreddit appropriate question. Civility is literally our first rule here -- if you post like this again, you will be banned.

    [–] Besides Israel, Palestine, or Jerusalem, has there ever been another instance in which other nations diplomatically recognized a country but not its chosen capital city? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Sorry, we don't allow "example seeking" questions. It's not that your question was bad; it's that these kinds of questions tend to produce threads that are collections of disjointed, partial, inadequate responses. If you have a question about a specific historical event, period, or person, feel free to rewrite your question and submit it again. If you don't want to rewrite it, you might try submitting it to /r/history, /r/askhistory, or /r/tellmeafact.

    For further explanation of the rule, feel free to consult this META thread.

    [–] When was the last person in prison for violating Prohibition in the US released? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    I'm sorry, but we don't allow 'First'/'Last' questions on /r/AskHistorians, and so we have removed this submission. It's not that the question is bad; it is simply that, given the rules of this subreddit, these types of questions are ill-suited to its format. We've found that they tend to get responses along the lines of "the first/last example I know of," or else many short, speculative responses in the case that the answer went unrecorded. This results in many removed comments, and very few answered threads.

    If this is a question you still are interested in a response to though, you have options!

    • Consider the core of the question to rephrase and resubmit. Instead of asking, for instance, "Who was the first person killed by a firearm?", try "What do we know about the early development and use of firearms?". Asking about origins, developments, or declines is more likely to get in-depth, knowledgeable answers.

    • Every other Wednesday we run a "Short Answers to Simple Questions", and if you can hang on to your question until then, it can likely fit unchanged.

    • Finally, you could also try submitting your question to /r/History or /r/AskHistory, which doesn't have submission criteria quite as strict.

    Thank you for understanding!

    [–] What is history? jschooltiger 2 points ago in AskHistorians

    Could you possibly expand on this a bit, and repost it?

    Alternatively, you could start here: https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/101323.What_Is_History_

    [–] Has there ever been a financial mania with parabolic growth that didn’t turn out to be a bubble and pop? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Sorry, we don't allow "example seeking" questions. It's not that your question was bad; it's that these kinds of questions tend to produce threads that are collections of disjointed, partial, inadequate responses. If you have a question about a specific historical event, period, or person, feel free to rewrite your question and submit it again. If you don't want to rewrite it, you might try submitting it to /r/history, /r/askhistory, or /r/tellmeafact.

    For further explanation of the rule, feel free to consult this META thread.

    [–] In what ways did male slaves have it worse than female slaves? What were some hardships male slaves had to endure more than female slaves? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Sorry, we don't allow "example seeking" questions. It's not that your question was bad; it's that these kinds of questions tend to produce threads that are collections of disjointed, partial, inadequate responses. If you have a question about a specific historical event, period, or person, feel free to rewrite your question and submit it again. If you don't want to rewrite it, you might try submitting it to /r/history, /r/askhistory, or /r/tellmeafact.

    For further explanation of the rule, feel free to consult this META thread.

    [–] (Inspired by a /r/DataIsBeautiful post) How much power did the Dutch East India Company have, and how likely is it that a company that rivals it will emerge again? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Sorry, but your submission has been removed because we don't allow hypothetical questions. If possible, please feel free to rephrase the question so that it does not call for such speculation, and resubmit. Otherwise, this sort of thing is better suited for /r/HistoryWhatIf. You can find a more in-depth discussion of this rule here.

    [–] After WW2, how long did it take for the name Adolf to fall out of use in Germany? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    I'm sorry, but this is not an acceptable basis for an answer in this subreddit, so I have had to remove your comment. In the future, please keep in mind our subreddit rules, specifically what we are looking for in an answer, before attempting to tackle a question here. For further discussion on how sourcing works in this subreddit, please consult this thread. Thank you!

    [–] American history of gaslighting? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Hi there -- although this is an interesting question, the mod-team has discussed it and would like you to rephrase it and ask it differently. Something like:

    Question about the partisan press in the United States

    Has there been a time in US history when media outlets were specifically operatives of, or worked for, a particular political party or candidates?

    [–] The man who standardized the polyphonic hymns of the Russian Orthodox Church, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, was an atheist. Are there any other examples of atheists heavily influencing a religion/religious sect? jschooltiger 2 points ago in AskHistorians

    Sorry, we don't allow "example seeking" questions. It's not that your question was bad; it's that these kinds of questions tend to produce threads that are collections of disjointed, partial, inadequate responses. If you have a question about a specific historical event, period, or person, feel free to rewrite your question and submit it again. If you don't want to rewrite it, you might try submitting it to /r/history, /r/askhistory, or /r/tellmeafact.

    For further explanation of the rule, feel free to consult this META thread.

    [–] What was the American Reconstruction in the 1870s and why was it equally as inevitable as the American Civil War? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Hello there. Unfortunately we have had to remove your question as it looks like it may be a homework question. A couple of things to keep in mind about this: Our rules DO permit people to ask for help with their homework, so long as they are seeking clarification or resources, rather than the answer itself. Also: Sometimes flairs can be reluctant to answer a question that looks like homework, because they don't want to be involved in plagiarism (and sadly, yes, there are those who plagiarize reddit comments).

    But, that all said, many of our users do enjoy helping out with suggestions for resources and further reading. Can you tell us what you've researched so far, what resources you've consulted, and what you've learned? If that doesn't work, you can also consider asking the helpful people at /r/HomeworkHelp. If you edit your post to be in compliance with our requirements for homework related questions, which are explored in more detail in this META Thread, we would be happy to restore it.

    Additionally, we would highly suggest that you check out our six part series on 'Finding and Understanding Sources', which might prove to be useful in your research.

    [–] Why do people blame Hitler for the Holocaust when it was mainly organized by Himmler? jschooltiger 7 points ago in AskHistorians

    Hi! As this question pertains to basic, underlying facts of the Holocaust, I hope you can appreciate that it can be a fraught subject to deal with. While we want people to get the answers they are looking for, we also remain very conscious that threads of this nature can attract the very wrong kind of response. As such, this message is not intended to provide you with all of the answers, but simply to address some of the basic facts, as well as Holocaust Denial, and provide a short list of introductory reading. There is always more than can be said, but we hope this is a good starting point for you.

    What Was the Holocaust?

    The Holocaust refers the genocidal deaths of 5-6 million European Jews carried out systematically by Nazi Germany as part of targeted policies of persecution and extermination during World War II. Some historians will also include the deaths of the Roma, Communists, Mentally Disabled, and other groups targeted by Nazi policies, which brings the total number of deaths to ~11 million. Debates about whether or not the Holocaust includes these deaths or not is a matter of definitions, but in no way a reflection on dispute that they occurred.

    But This Guy Says Otherwise!

    Unfortunately, there is a small, but at times vocal, minority of persons who fall into the category of Holocaust Denial, attempting to minimize the deaths by orders of magnitude, impugn well proven facts, or even claim that the Holocaust is entirely a fabrication and never happened. Although they often self-style themselves as "Revisionists", they are not correctly described by the title. While revisionism is not inherently a dirty word, actual revision, to quote Michael Shermer, "entails refinement of detailed knowledge about events, rarely complete denial of the events themselves, and certainly not denial of the cumulation of events known as the Holocaust."

    It is absolutely true that were you to read a book written in 1950 or so, you would find information which any decent scholar today might reject, and that is the result of good revisionism. But these changes, which even can be quite large, such as the reassessment of deaths at Auschwitz from ~4 million to ~1 million, are done within the bounds of respected, academic study, and reflect decades of work that builds upon the work of previous scholars, and certainly does not willfully disregard documented evidence and recollections. There are still plenty of questions within Holocaust Studies that are debated by scholars, and there may still be more out there for us to discover, and revise, but when it comes to the basic facts, there is simply no valid argument against them.

    So What Are the Basics?

    Beginning with their rise to power in the 1930s, the Nazi Party, headed by Adolf Hitler, implemented a series of anti-Jewish policies within Germany, marginalizing Jews within society more and more, stripping them of their wealth, livelihoods, and their dignity. With the invasion of Poland in 1939, the number of Jews under Nazi control reached into the millions, and this number would again increase with the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. Shortly after the invasion of Poland, the Germans started to confine the Jewish population into squalid ghettos. After several plans on how to rid Europe of the Jews that all proved unfeasible, by the time of the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, ideological (Antisemitism) and pragmatic (Resources) considerations lead to mass-killings becoming the only viable option in the minds of the Nazi leadership. First only practiced in the USSR, it was influential groups such as the SS and the administration of the General Government that pushed to expand the killing operations to all of Europe and sometime at the end of 1941 met with Hitler’s approval.

    The early killings were carried out foremost by the Einsatzgruppen, paramilitary groups organized under the aegis of the SS and tasked with carrying out the mass killings of Jews, Communists, and other 'undesirable elements' in the wake of the German military's advance. In what is often termed the 'Holocaust by Bullet', the Einsatzgruppen, with the assistance of the Wehrmacht, the SD, the Security Police, as well as local collaborators, would kill roughly two million persons, over half of them Jews. Most killings were carried out with mass shootings, but other methods such as gas vans - intended to spare the killers the trauma of shooting so many persons day after day - were utilized too.

    By early 1942, the "Final Solution" to the so-called "Jewish Question" was essentially finalized at the Wannsee Conference under the direction of Reinhard Heydrich, where the plan to eliminate the Jewish population of Europe using a series of extermination camps set up in occupied Poland was presented and met with approval.

    Construction of extermination camps had already begun the previous fall, and mass extermination, mostly as part of 'Operation Reinhard', had began operation by spring of 1942. Roughly 2 million persons, nearly all Jewish men, women, and children, were immediately gassed upon arrival at Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka over the next two years, when these "Reinhard" camps were closed and razed. More victims would meet their fate in additional extermination camps such as Chełmno, but most infamously at Auschwitz-Birkenau, where slightly over 1 million persons, mostly Jews, died. Under the plan set forth at Wannsee, exterminations were hardly limited to the Jews of Poland, but rather Jews from all over Europe were rounded up and sent east by rail like cattle to the slaughter. Although the victims of the Reinhard Camps were originally buried, they would later be exhumed and cremated, and cremation of the victims was normal procedure at later camps such as Auschwitz.

    The Camps

    There were two main types of camps run by Nazi Germany, which is sometimes a source of confusion. Concentration Camps were well known means of extrajudicial control implemented by the Nazis shortly after taking power, beginning with the construction of Dachau in 1933. Political opponents of all type, not just Jews, could find themselves imprisoned in these camps during the pre-war years, and while conditions were often brutal and squalid, and numerous deaths did occur from mistreatment, they were not usually a death sentence and the population fluctuated greatly. Although Concentration Camps were later made part of the 'Final Solution', their purpose was not as immediate extermination centers. Some were 'way stations', and others were work camps, where Germany intended to eke out every last bit of productivity from them through what was known as "extermination through labor". Jews and other undesirable elements, if deemed healthy enough to work, could find themselves spared for a time and "allowed" to toil away like slaves until their usefulness was at an end.

    Although some Concentration Camps, such as Mauthausen, did include small gas chambers, mass gassing was not the primary purpose of the camp. Many camps, becoming extremely overcrowded, nevertheless resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of inhabitants due to the outbreak of diseases such as typhus, or starvation, all of which the camp administrations did little to prevent. Bergen-Belsen, which was not a work camp but rather served as something of a way station for prisoners of the camp systems being moved about, is perhaps one of the most infamous of camps on this count, saw some 50,000 deaths caused by the conditions. Often located in the Reich, camps liberated by the Western forces were exclusively Concentration Camps, and many survivor testimonies come from these camps.

    The Concentration Camps are contrasted with the Extermination Camps, which were purpose built for mass killing, with large gas chambers and later on, crematoria, but little or no facilities for inmates. Often they were disguised with false facades to lull the new arrivals into a false sense of security, even though rumors were of course rife for the fate that awaited the deportees. Almost all arrivals were killed upon arrival at these camps, and in many cases the number of survivors numbered in the single digits, such as at Bełżec, where only seven Jews, forced to assist in operation of the camp, were alive after the war.

    Several camps, however, were 'Hybrids' of both types, the most famous being Auschwitz, which was a vast complex of subcamps. The infamous 'selection' of prisoners, conducted by SS doctors upon arrival, meant life or death, with those deemed unsuited for labor immediately gassed and the more healthy and robust given at least temporary reprieve. The death count at Auschwitz numbered around 1 million, but it is also the source of many survivor testimonies.

    How Do We Know?

    Running through the evidence piece by piece would take more space than we have here, but suffice to say, there is a lot of evidence, and not just the (mountains of) survivor testimony. We have testimonies and writings from many who participated, as well German documentation of the programs. This site catalogs some of the evidence we have for mass extermination as it relates to Auschwitz. I'll end this with a short list of excellent works that should help to introduce you to various aspects of Holocaust study.

    Further Reading