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    [–] It is London in 1911 and I'm a white, middle class twelve year old girl. What is my average day like? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Hi there - we're happy to approve your question related to your novel, and we are happy for people to answer. However, we should warn you that many flairs have become reluctant to answer questions for aspiring novelists, based on past experience: some aspiring novelists have a tendency to try to pump historians for trivia while ignoring the bigger points they were making, while others have a tendency to argue with historians when the historical reality does not line up with what's needed for a particular scene or characterization. Please respect the answers of people who have generously given you their time, even if it's not always what you want to hear.

    Additionally, as amazing as our flair panel is, we should also point out that /r/AskHistorians is not a professional historical consultation service. If you're asking a question here because you need vital research for a future commercial product such as a historical novel, you may be better off engaging a historical consultant at a fair hourly rate to answer these questions for you. We don't know what the going rate for consultancy work would be in your locality, but it may be worth looking into that if you have in-depth or highly plot-reliant questions for this project. Some /r/AskHistorians flairs could be receptive to working as a consultant in this way. However, if you wish for a flair here to do this work for you, you will need to organize this with them yourselves.

    [–] What lost work would historians most wish to be rediscovered? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    This submission has been removed because it violates the rule on poll-type questions. These questions do not lend themselves to answers with a firm foundation in sources and research, and the resulting threads usually turn into monsters with enormous speculation and little focussed discussion. Questions about the "most", the "worst", or other value judgments usually lead to vague, subjective, and speculative answers. For further information, please consult this Roundtable discussion.

    For questions of this type, we ask that you redirect them to more appropriate subreddits, such as /r/history or /r/askhistory.

    [–] How much net worth in 2018 dollars would you need to be considered a "Kulak" in Stalin's Russia? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    We ask that answers in this subreddit be in-depth and comprehensive, and highly suggest that comments include citations for the information. In the future, please take the time to better familiarize yourself with the rules, and be sure that your answer demonstrates these four key points:

    Thank you!

    [–] What was the difference between Proto-Villanovan and Villanovan culture and peoples? jschooltiger 2 points ago in AskHistorians

    Hi - we as mods have approved this thread, because while this is a homework question, it is asking for clarification or resources, rather than the answer itself, which is fine according to our rules. This policy is further explained in this Rules Roundtable thread and this META Thread.

    As a result, we'd also like to remind potential answerers to follow our rules on homework - please make sure that your answers focus appropriately on clarifications and detailing the resources that OP could be using.

    Additionally, while users may be able to help you out with specifics relating to your question, we also have plenty of information on /r/AskHistorians on how to find and understand good sources in general. For instance, please check out our six-part series, "Finding and Understanding Sources", which has a wealth of information that may be useful for finding and understanding information for your essay.

    [–] What was the mentality of the average white person before and after Jim Crowe laws were implemented? Was legally mandating segregation backed by the majority of the white population of the time? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Hi -- we noticed you submitted this same question a couple hours ago, then deleted it:

    https://www.reddit.com/r/AskHistorians/comments/8eg2nq/before_and_after_jim_crowe/

    Please don't do that. It's quite rude to a user who might have seen it and might have been spending several hours consulting sources and writing an answer to have the question deleted out from under them. We consider this a violation of our rule on civility, and will ban you if you do this again.

    [–] WW2: How much did the United States spend on boats? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Apologies, but we are removing and redirecting your question, which we perceive to fall under the 'Basic Facts Rule'. Unfortunately, some questions that are essentially asking for 'basic facts' do not lend themselves to the in-depth, comprehensive responses that /r/AskHistorians' rules are designed to encourage. We are glad you are interested in historical questions enough to ask a question here, however, and hopefully one of the following suggestions for redirecting or rewording your question is useful:

    • Every Wednesday we have a weekly, stickied "Short Answers to Simple Questions" thread - this is an excellent place to ask questions which are looking for an answer that can be summed up in a few sentences at most, and questions asked there often get answers. If your question isn’t a conceptual one, but you’re posting to /r/AskHistorians purposefully because you are seeking out the sub's reputation for quality and accuracy, this is likely the right place for your question.
    • If you are interested in the topic beyond what can be answered in a couple of sentences, it might be that the way you've phrased your question misled us, and likely would for others; if this is the case, take a few minutes to think about what it is that you want to know, and repost a rewording of the question that is a bit more fleshed out. If you need some pointers, the mod team is always happy to assist, but also be sure to check out this guide on asking better questions.
    • Finally, don’t forget that AskHistorians is only one subreddit of many on Reddit. Several complementary subreddits exist which aim to answer your questions, without /r/AskHistorians's stricter rules. Consider /r/AskHistory, which is a similar space with lighter moderation, or /r/explainlikeimfive, which is specifically aimed at simple and easily digested answers. If you've asked a question about the origin of a word or phrase, you may also receive a good answer at /r/etymology. These and other subreddits might be more appropriate venues for your questions.

    We hope that this will help you in placing your question in the most appropriate space to get the answer you are seeking, but if you have any further questions, please let us know. Additionally, as this is only a Provisional Rule being tested for the next month, we encourage you to visit this thread to leave your thoughts and feedback on how to tweak or improve the rule's implementation.

    [–] My son's history teacher said that Jesus was not the only miracle worker active in Palestine around 0 AD. Who were the others, and why do they not have a legacy similar to that of Jesus? jschooltiger 22 points ago in AskHistorians

    Hi there -- if you don't think that a question belongs here, you are more than welcome to message us in mod-mail or hit the "report" button, but please don't post like this.

    For the record, we are quite happy to host questions about Jesus, because the overall historical consensus is that he did exist -- whether or not he was the Son of God, etc., isn't our bailiwick, though.

    [–] How often did monarchs use the "Royal We"? Did they use it in regular conversation or just during announcements and letters? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Sorry, we don't allow "example seeking" questions. It's not that your question was bad; it's that these kinds of questions tend to produce threads that are collections of disjointed, partial, inadequate responses. If you have a question about a specific historical event, period, or person, feel free to rewrite your question and submit it again. If you don't want to rewrite it, you might try submitting it to /r/history, /r/askhistory, or /r/tellmeafact.

    For further explanation of the rule, feel free to consult this META thread.

    [–] How have actors view of insurgency changed, and how did changing view impact tactics and counter tactics? What events effected the actors views? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Hi there - unfortunately we have had to remove your question, because /r/AskHistorians isn't here to do your homework for you. However, our rules DO permit people to ask for help with their homework, so long as they are seeking clarification or resources, rather than the answer itself.

    If you have indeed asked a homework question, you should consider resubmitting a question more focused on finding resources and seeking clarification on confusing issues: tell us what you've researched so far, what resources you've consulted, and what you've learned, and we are more likely to approve your question. Please see this Rules Roundtable thread for more information on what makes for the kind of homework question we'd approve. Additionally, if you're not sure where to start in terms of finding and understanding sources in general, we have a six-part series, "Finding and Understanding Sources", which has a wealth of information that may be useful for finding and understanding information for your essay. Finally, other subreddits are likely to be more suitable for help with homework - try looking for help at /r/HomeworkHelp.

    Alternatively, if you are not a student and are not doing homework, we have removed your question because it resembled a homework question. It may resemble a common essay question from a prominent history syllabus or may be worded in a broad, open-ended way that feels like the kind of essay question that a professor would set. Professors often word essay questions in order to provide the student with a platform to show how much they understand a topic, and these questions are typically broader and more interested in interpretations and delineating between historical theories than the average /r/AskHistorians question. If your non-homework question was incorrectly removed for this reason, we will be happy to approve your question if you wait for 7 days and then ask a less open-ended question on the same topic.

    [–] Why is ancient Egyptian religion so often associated with the occult? jschooltiger 2 points ago in AskHistorians

    We ask that answers in this subreddit be in-depth and comprehensive, and highly suggest that comments include citations for the information. In the future, please take the time to better familiarize yourself with the rules and our Rules Roundtable on Speculation.

    [–] How much (or how little) did Japanese change over the centuries? Will a modern Japanese speaker be able to speak intelligibly with say Oda Nobunaga in the 1500s? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Please understand that people come here because they want an informed response from someone capable of engaging with the sources, and providing follow up information. Wikipedia is a great tool, but merely repeating information found there doesn't provide the type of answers we seek to encourage here. As such, we don't allow a link or quote to make up the entirety or majority of a response. If someone wishes to simply get the Wikipedia answer, they are welcome to look into it for themselves, but posting here is a presumption that they either don't want to get the answer that way, or have already done so and found it lacking. You can find further discussion of this policy here.

    In the future, please take the time to better familiarize yourself with the rules, and be sure that your answer demonstrates these four key points:

    • Do I have the expertise needed to answer this question?
    • Have I done research on this question?
    • Can I cite academic quality primary and secondary sources?
    • Can I answer follow-up questions?

    Thank you!

    [–] What is the oldest constructed building still in regular use today? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    This submission has been removed because it violates the rule on poll-type questions. These questions do not lend themselves to answers with a firm foundation in sources and research, and the resulting threads usually turn into monsters with enormous speculation and little focussed discussion. Questions about the "most", the "worst", or other value judgments usually lead to vague, subjective, and speculative answers. For further information, please consult this Roundtable discussion.

    For questions of this type, we ask that you redirect them to more appropriate subreddits, such as /r/history or /r/askhistory.

    [–] How and to what degree did the Falkland’s War impact Mexico’s economic development? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Hi there - unfortunately we have had to remove your question, because /r/AskHistorians isn't here to do your homework for you. However, our rules DO permit people to ask for help with their homework, so long as they are seeking clarification or resources, rather than the answer itself.

    If you have indeed asked a homework question, you should consider resubmitting a question more focused on finding resources and seeking clarification on confusing issues: tell us what you've researched so far, what resources you've consulted, and what you've learned, and we are more likely to approve your question. Please see this Rules Roundtable thread for more information on what makes for the kind of homework question we'd approve. Additionally, if you're not sure where to start in terms of finding and understanding sources in general, we have a six-part series, "Finding and Understanding Sources", which has a wealth of information that may be useful for finding and understanding information for your essay. Finally, other subreddits are likely to be more suitable for help with homework - try looking for help at /r/HomeworkHelp.

    Alternatively, if you are not a student and are not doing homework, we have removed your question because it resembled a homework question. It may resemble a common essay question from a prominent history syllabus or may be worded in a broad, open-ended way that feels like the kind of essay question that a professor would set. Professors often word essay questions in order to provide the student with a platform to show how much they understand a topic, and these questions are typically broader and more interested in interpretations and delineating between historical theories than the average /r/AskHistorians question. If your non-homework question was incorrectly removed for this reason, we will be happy to approve your question if you wait for 7 days and then ask a less open-ended question on the same topic.

    [–] Napoleonic Era Royal Navy court martial question jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Hi there - we're happy to approve your question related to your novel, and we are happy for people to answer. However, we should warn you that many flairs have become reluctant to answer questions for aspiring novelists, based on past experience: some aspiring novelists have a tendency to try to pump historians for trivia while ignoring the bigger points they were making, while others have a tendency to argue with historians when the historical reality does not line up with what's needed for a particular scene or characterization. Please respect the answers of people who have generously given you their time, even if it's not always what you want to hear.

    Additionally, as amazing as our flair panel is, we should also point out that /r/AskHistorians is not a professional historical consultation service. If you're asking a question here because you need vital research for a future commercial product such as a historical novel, you may be better off engaging a historical consultant at a fair hourly rate to answer these questions for you. We don't know what the going rate for consultancy work would be in your locality, but it may be worth looking into that if you have in-depth or highly plot-reliant questions for this project. Some /r/AskHistorians flairs could be receptive to working as a consultant in this way. However, if you wish for a flair here to do this work for you, you will need to organize this with them yourselves.

    [–] To what extent does paganism still affect traditions and culture in Europe and the reat of Western Civilization? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Sorry, we don't allow "example seeking" questions. It's not that your question was bad; it's that these kinds of questions tend to produce threads that are collections of disjointed, partial, inadequate responses. If you have a question about a specific historical event, period, or person, feel free to rewrite your question and submit it again. If you don't want to rewrite it, you might try submitting it to /r/history, /r/askhistory, or /r/tellmeafact.

    For further explanation of the rule, feel free to consult this META thread.

    [–] Why did the Nazis hate Jews so much? jschooltiger 5 points ago in AskHistorians

    Hi! As this question pertains to basic, underlying facts of the Holocaust, I hope you can appreciate that it can be a fraught subject to deal with. While we want people to get the answers they are looking for, we also remain very conscious that threads of this nature can attract the very wrong kind of response. As such, this message is not intended to provide you with all of the answers, but simply to address some of the basic facts, as well as Holocaust Denial, and provide a short list of introductory reading. There is always more than can be said, but we hope this is a good starting point for you.

    What Was the Holocaust?

    The Holocaust refers the genocidal deaths of 5-6 million European Jews carried out systematically by Nazi Germany as part of targeted policies of persecution and extermination during World War II. Some historians will also include the deaths of the Roma, Communists, Mentally Disabled, and other groups targeted by Nazi policies, which brings the total number of deaths to ~11 million. Debates about whether or not the Holocaust includes these deaths or not is a matter of definitions, but in no way a reflection on dispute that they occurred.

    But This Guy Says Otherwise!

    Unfortunately, there is a small, but at times vocal, minority of persons who fall into the category of Holocaust Denial, attempting to minimize the deaths by orders of magnitude, impugn well proven facts, or even claim that the Holocaust is entirely a fabrication and never happened. Although they often self-style themselves as "Revisionists", they are not correctly described by the title. While revisionism is not inherently a dirty word, actual revision, to quote Michael Shermer, "entails refinement of detailed knowledge about events, rarely complete denial of the events themselves, and certainly not denial of the cumulation of events known as the Holocaust."

    It is absolutely true that were you to read a book written in 1950 or so, you would find information which any decent scholar today might reject, and that is the result of good revisionism. But these changes, which even can be quite large, such as the reassessment of deaths at Auschwitz from ~4 million to ~1 million, are done within the bounds of respected, academic study, and reflect decades of work that builds upon the work of previous scholars, and certainly does not willfully disregard documented evidence and recollections. There are still plenty of questions within Holocaust Studies that are debated by scholars, and there may still be more out there for us to discover, and revise, but when it comes to the basic facts, there is simply no valid argument against them.

    So What Are the Basics?

    Beginning with their rise to power in the 1930s, the Nazi Party, headed by Adolf Hitler, implemented a series of anti-Jewish policies within Germany, marginalizing Jews within society more and more, stripping them of their wealth, livelihoods, and their dignity. With the invasion of Poland in 1939, the number of Jews under Nazi control reached into the millions, and this number would again increase with the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. Shortly after the invasion of Poland, the Germans started to confine the Jewish population into squalid ghettos. After several plans on how to rid Europe of the Jews that all proved unfeasible, by the time of the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, ideological (Antisemitism) and pragmatic (Resources) considerations lead to mass-killings becoming the only viable option in the minds of the Nazi leadership. First only practiced in the USSR, it was influential groups such as the SS and the administration of the General Government that pushed to expand the killing operations to all of Europe and sometime at the end of 1941 met with Hitler’s approval.

    The early killings were carried out foremost by the Einsatzgruppen, paramilitary groups organized under the aegis of the SS and tasked with carrying out the mass killings of Jews, Communists, and other 'undesirable elements' in the wake of the German military's advance. In what is often termed the 'Holocaust by Bullet', the Einsatzgruppen, with the assistance of the Wehrmacht, the SD, the Security Police, as well as local collaborators, would kill roughly two million persons, over half of them Jews. Most killings were carried out with mass shootings, but other methods such as gas vans - intended to spare the killers the trauma of shooting so many persons day after day - were utilized too.

    By early 1942, the "Final Solution" to the so-called "Jewish Question" was essentially finalized at the Wannsee Conference under the direction of Reinhard Heydrich, where the plan to eliminate the Jewish population of Europe using a series of extermination camps set up in occupied Poland was presented and met with approval.

    Construction of extermination camps had already begun the previous fall, and mass extermination, mostly as part of 'Operation Reinhard', had began operation by spring of 1942. Roughly 2 million persons, nearly all Jewish men, women, and children, were immediately gassed upon arrival at Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka over the next two years, when these "Reinhard" camps were closed and razed. More victims would meet their fate in additional extermination camps such as Chełmno, but most infamously at Auschwitz-Birkenau, where slightly over 1 million persons, mostly Jews, died. Under the plan set forth at Wannsee, exterminations were hardly limited to the Jews of Poland, but rather Jews from all over Europe were rounded up and sent east by rail like cattle to the slaughter. Although the victims of the Reinhard Camps were originally buried, they would later be exhumed and cremated, and cremation of the victims was normal procedure at later camps such as Auschwitz.

    The Camps

    There were two main types of camps run by Nazi Germany, which is sometimes a source of confusion. Concentration Camps were well known means of extrajudicial control implemented by the Nazis shortly after taking power, beginning with the construction of Dachau in 1933. Political opponents of all type, not just Jews, could find themselves imprisoned in these camps during the pre-war years, and while conditions were often brutal and squalid, and numerous deaths did occur from mistreatment, they were not usually a death sentence and the population fluctuated greatly. Although Concentration Camps were later made part of the 'Final Solution', their purpose was not as immediate extermination centers. Some were 'way stations', and others were work camps, where Germany intended to eke out every last bit of productivity from them through what was known as "extermination through labor". Jews and other undesirable elements, if deemed healthy enough to work, could find themselves spared for a time and "allowed" to toil away like slaves until their usefulness was at an end.

    Although some Concentration Camps, such as Mauthausen, did include small gas chambers, mass gassing was not the primary purpose of the camp. Many camps, becoming extremely overcrowded, nevertheless resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of inhabitants due to the outbreak of diseases such as typhus, or starvation, all of which the camp administrations did little to prevent. Bergen-Belsen, which was not a work camp but rather served as something of a way station for prisoners of the camp systems being moved about, is perhaps one of the most infamous of camps on this count, saw some 50,000 deaths caused by the conditions. Often located in the Reich, camps liberated by the Western forces were exclusively Concentration Camps, and many survivor testimonies come from these camps.

    The Concentration Camps are contrasted with the Extermination Camps, which were purpose built for mass killing, with large gas chambers and later on, crematoria, but little or no facilities for inmates. Often they were disguised with false facades to lull the new arrivals into a false sense of security, even though rumors were of course rife for the fate that awaited the deportees. Almost all arrivals were killed upon arrival at these camps, and in many cases the number of survivors numbered in the single digits, such as at Bełżec, where only seven Jews, forced to assist in operation of the camp, were alive after the war.

    Several camps, however, were 'Hybrids' of both types, the most famous being Auschwitz, which was a vast complex of subcamps. The infamous 'selection' of prisoners, conducted by SS doctors upon arrival, meant life or death, with those deemed unsuited for labor immediately gassed and the more healthy and robust given at least temporary reprieve. The death count at Auschwitz numbered around 1 million, but it is also the source of many survivor testimonies.

    How Do We Know?

    Running through the evidence piece by piece would take more space than we have here, but suffice to say, there is a lot of evidence, and not just the (mountains of) survivor testimony. We have testimonies and writings from many who participated, as well German documentation of the programs. This site catalogs some of the evidence we have for mass extermination as it relates to Auschwitz. I'll end this with a short list of excellent works that should help to introduce you to various aspects of Holocaust study.

    Further Reading

    [–] Primary Research Paper on Dust Bowl jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Hi - we as mods have approved this thread, because while this is a homework question, it is asking for clarification or resources, rather than the answer itself, which is fine according to our rules. This policy is further explained in this Rules Roundtable thread and this META Thread.

    As a result, we'd also like to remind potential answerers to follow our rules on homework - please make sure that your answers focus appropriately on clarifications and detailing the resources that OP could be using.

    Additionally, while users may be able to help you out with specifics relating to your question, we also have plenty of information on /r/AskHistorians on how to find and understand good sources in general. For instance, please check out our six-part series, "Finding and Understanding Sources", which has a wealth of information that may be useful for finding and understanding information for your essay.

    [–] Is it true that social change always comes from pressure below, rather than being granted from the rulers? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    Sorry, we don't allow "example seeking" questions. It's not that your question was bad; it's that these kinds of questions tend to produce threads that are collections of disjointed, partial, inadequate responses. If you have a question about a specific historical event, period, or person, feel free to rewrite your question and submit it again. If you don't want to rewrite it, you might try submitting it to /r/history, /r/askhistory, or /r/tellmeafact.

    For further explanation of the rule, feel free to consult this META thread.

    [–] Why did the Catholic Church ban Victor Hugo's Les Miserables? jschooltiger 3 points ago in AskHistorians

    We ask that answers in this subreddit be in-depth and comprehensive, and highly suggest that comments include citations for the information. In the future, please take the time to better familiarize yourself with the rules, and be sure that your answer demonstrates these four key points:

    Thank you!

    [–] Did an arab Trader Visited Medieval europe? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    If you do ask the question again, which is probably a good idea since it hasn't gotten much visibility, I might suggest rewording it along the lines of "What do we know about trade between Europe and North Africa/the Middle East during the Middle Ages? What if any contemporary accounts survive?"

    You're much more likely to get an answer that way than just asking "was there any instance of trade."

    Hope that helps!

    [–] [META] A way to integrate general public comments jschooltiger 9 points ago in AskHistorians

    What you’re asking for already exists. If you don’t like this subreddit, you have the option of not participating here. Head over to r/history, r/askhistory or r/askreddit. Easy peasy.

    But the tone of the ask is what’s irksome — do you frequently write to academic publishers and ask for journals with shorter words? Do you walk into your local fine dining establishment and demand chicken nuggets? Not everything has to be the lowest common denominator.

    [–] Which institutions in the industrial revolution evolved from earlier systems, and which were truly revolutionary? jschooltiger 1 points ago in AskHistorians

    This submission has been removed because it violates the rule on poll-type questions. These questions do not lend themselves to answers with a firm foundation in sources and research, and the resulting threads usually turn into monsters with enormous speculation and little focussed discussion. Questions about the "most", the "worst", or other value judgments usually lead to vague, subjective, and speculative answers. For further information, please consult this Roundtable discussion.

    For questions of this type, we ask that you redirect them to more appropriate subreddits, such as /r/history or /r/askhistory.