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    [–] New sperm creation method could overcome genetic male infertility. Healthy sperm have been created in mice with a common form of infertility, raising hope for future treatment for men with extra sex chromosomes, as reported in journal Science. mvea 1 points ago in science

    Journal reference:

    Fertile offspring from sterile sex chromosome trisomic mice

    Takayuki Hirota1, Hiroshi Ohta2,3, Benjamin E. Powell1, Shantha K. Mahadevaiah1, Obah A. Ojarikre1, Mitinori Saitou2,3,4,5,, James M. A. Turner1,

    Science 17 Aug 2017: eaam9046

    DOI: 10.1126/science.aam9046

    Link: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2017/08/16/science.aam9046

    Abstract:

    Having the correct number of chromosomes is vital for normal development and health. Sex chromosome trisomy (SCT) affects 0.1% of the human population and is associated with infertility. We show that during reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), fibroblasts from sterile trisomic XXY and XYY mice lose the extra sex chromosome, by a phenomenon we term trisomy-biased chromosome loss (TCL). Resulting euploid XY iPSCs can be differentiated into the male germ cell lineage and functional sperm that can be used in intracytoplasmic sperm injection to produce chromosomally normal, fertile offspring. Sex chromosome loss is comparatively infrequent during mouse XX and XY iPSC generation. TCL also applies to other chromosomes, generating euploid iPSCs from cells of a Down syndrome mouse model. It can also create euploid iPSCs from human trisomic patient fibroblasts. The findings have relevance to overcoming infertility and other trisomic phenotypes.

    [–] Cholesterol crystals play a big role in causing cardiac damage mvea 1 points ago in EverythingScience

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    [–] Permanently delete files from any device mvea 1 points ago in Futurology

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    [–] Geneticists trace humble apple's exotic lineage all the way to the Silk Road. The fruit’s evolutionary history has been unpicked for the first time by studying a range of wild and cultivated apples from China to North America, with genetic data from 117 types, as reported in Nature Communications. mvea 17 points ago in science

    Journal reference:

    Genome re-sequencing reveals the history of apple and supports a two-stage model for fruit enlargement

    Naibin Duan, Yang Bai, […]Xuesen Chen

    Nature Communications 8, Article number: 249 (2017)

    doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00336-7

    Published online: 15 August 2017

    Link: http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-00336-7

    Abstract

    Human selection has reshaped crop genomes. Here we report an apple genome variation map generated through genome sequencing of 117 diverse accessions. A comprehensive model of apple speciation and domestication along the Silk Road is proposed based on evidence from diverse genomic analyses. Cultivated apples likely originate from Malus sieversii in Kazakhstan, followed by intensive introgressions from M. sylvestris. M. sieversii in Xinjiang of China turns out to be an “ancient” isolated ecotype not directly contributing to apple domestication. We have identified selective sweeps underlying quantitative trait loci/genes of important fruit quality traits including fruit texture and flavor, and provide evidences supporting a model of apple fruit size evolution comprising two major events with one occurring prior to domestication and the other during domestication. This study outlines the genetic basis of apple domestication and evolution, and provides valuable information for facilitating marker-assisted breeding and apple improvement.

    [–] Wax on, wax ouch: pubic grooming has a high injury rate, survey reveals: A quarter of those who groom their pubic hair have suffered mishaps from cuts to burns and rashes – some requiring medical help – researchers have found mvea 1 points ago in Health

    Journal reference:

    Prevalence of Pubic Hair Grooming–Related Injuries and Identification of High-Risk Individuals in the United States

    Matthew D. Truesdale, MD1; E. Charles Osterberg, MD1,2; Thomas W. Gaither, BS1; et al

    JAMA Dermatology

    Published online August 16, 2017.

    doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2017.2815

    Link: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamadermatology/fullarticle/2648859

    Key Points

    Question What are the prevalence and clinical correlates of injuries among US adults who groom pubic hair?

    Findings In this nationally representative cross-sectional study of 5674 adults who reported pubic hair grooming, grooming-related injury was reported by 1430 (weighted prevalence, 25.6%). Degree of grooming was an independent risk factor for injury; waxing may prevent repetitive injuries.

    Meaning The present data may help to identify injury-prone groomers and lead to safer grooming practices.

    Abstract

    Importance Pubic hair grooming is a common practice that can lead to injury and morbidity.

    Objective To identify demographic and behavioral risk factors associated with pubic hair grooming–related injuries to characterize individuals with high risk of injury and develop recommendations for safe grooming practices.

    Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional study conducted a national survey of noninstitutionalized US adults (aged 18-65 years). The web-based survey was conducted through a probability-based web panel designed to be representative of the US population. Data were collected in January 2014 and analyzed from August 1, 2016, through February 1, 2017.

    Main Outcomes and Measures Grooming-related injury history (yes or no), high-frequency injuries (>5 lifetime injuries), and injury requiring medical attention.

    Results Among the 7570 participants who completed the survey (4198 men [55.5%] and 3372 women [44.5%]; mean (SD) age, 41.9 [18.9] years), 5674 of 7456 (76.1%) reported a history of grooming (66.5% of men and 85.3% of women [weighted percentages]). Grooming-related injury was reported by 1430 groomers (weighted prevalence, 25.6%), with more women sustaining an injury than men (868 [27.1%] vs 562 [23.7%]; P = .01). Laceration was the most common injury sustained (818 [61.2%]), followed by burn (307 [23.0%]) and rashes (163 [12.2%]). Common areas for grooming-related injury for men were the scrotum (378 [67.2%]), penis (196 [34.8%]), and pubis (162 [28.9%]); for women, the pubis (445 [51.3%]), inner thigh (340 [44.9%]), vagina (369 [42.5%]), and perineum (115 [13.2%]). After adjustment for age, duration of grooming, hairiness, instrument used, and grooming frequency, men who removed all their pubic hair 11 times or more during their lifespan had an increased risk for grooming injury (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.97; 95% CI, 1.28-3.01; P = .002) and were prone to repeated high-frequency injuries (AOR, 3.89; 95% CI, 2.01-7.52; P < .001) compared with groomers who did not remove all their pubic hair. Women who removed all their pubic hair 11 times or more had increased odds of injury (AOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.53-3.19; P < .001) and high-frequency injuries (AOR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.78-5.01; P < .001) compared with groomers who do not remove all their pubic hair. In women, waxing decreased the odds of high-frequency injuries (AOR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.03-0.43; P = .001) compared with nonelectric blades. In total, 79 injuries among 5674 groomers (1.4%) required medical attention.

    Conclusions and Relevance Grooming frequency and degree of grooming (ie, removing all pubic hair) are independent risk factors for injury. The present data may help identify injury-prone groomers and lead to safer grooming practices.

    [–] Pubic grooming has a high injury rate: 26% of those who groom their pubic hair have suffered mishaps from cuts (61%) to burns (23%) and rashes (12%) – some (1.4%) requiring medical help – researchers have found in a new study of 7,456 participants published in JAMA Dermatology. mvea 15 points ago in science

    Journal reference:

    Prevalence of Pubic Hair Grooming–Related Injuries and Identification of High-Risk Individuals in the United States

    Matthew D. Truesdale, MD1; E. Charles Osterberg, MD1,2; Thomas W. Gaither, BS1; et al

    JAMA Dermatology

    Published online August 16, 2017.

    doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2017.2815

    Link: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamadermatology/fullarticle/2648859

    Key Points

    Question What are the prevalence and clinical correlates of injuries among US adults who groom pubic hair?

    Findings In this nationally representative cross-sectional study of 5674 adults who reported pubic hair grooming, grooming-related injury was reported by 1430 (weighted prevalence, 25.6%). Degree of grooming was an independent risk factor for injury; waxing may prevent repetitive injuries.

    Meaning The present data may help to identify injury-prone groomers and lead to safer grooming practices.

    Abstract

    Importance Pubic hair grooming is a common practice that can lead to injury and morbidity.

    Objective To identify demographic and behavioral risk factors associated with pubic hair grooming–related injuries to characterize individuals with high risk of injury and develop recommendations for safe grooming practices.

    Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional study conducted a national survey of noninstitutionalized US adults (aged 18-65 years). The web-based survey was conducted through a probability-based web panel designed to be representative of the US population. Data were collected in January 2014 and analyzed from August 1, 2016, through February 1, 2017.

    Main Outcomes and Measures Grooming-related injury history (yes or no), high-frequency injuries (>5 lifetime injuries), and injury requiring medical attention.

    Results Among the 7570 participants who completed the survey (4198 men [55.5%] and 3372 women [44.5%]; mean (SD) age, 41.9 [18.9] years), 5674 of 7456 (76.1%) reported a history of grooming (66.5% of men and 85.3% of women [weighted percentages]). Grooming-related injury was reported by 1430 groomers (weighted prevalence, 25.6%), with more women sustaining an injury than men (868 [27.1%] vs 562 [23.7%]; P = .01). Laceration was the most common injury sustained (818 [61.2%]), followed by burn (307 [23.0%]) and rashes (163 [12.2%]). Common areas for grooming-related injury for men were the scrotum (378 [67.2%]), penis (196 [34.8%]), and pubis (162 [28.9%]); for women, the pubis (445 [51.3%]), inner thigh (340 [44.9%]), vagina (369 [42.5%]), and perineum (115 [13.2%]). After adjustment for age, duration of grooming, hairiness, instrument used, and grooming frequency, men who removed all their pubic hair 11 times or more during their lifespan had an increased risk for grooming injury (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.97; 95% CI, 1.28-3.01; P = .002) and were prone to repeated high-frequency injuries (AOR, 3.89; 95% CI, 2.01-7.52; P < .001) compared with groomers who did not remove all their pubic hair. Women who removed all their pubic hair 11 times or more had increased odds of injury (AOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.53-3.19; P < .001) and high-frequency injuries (AOR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.78-5.01; P < .001) compared with groomers who do not remove all their pubic hair. In women, waxing decreased the odds of high-frequency injuries (AOR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.03-0.43; P = .001) compared with nonelectric blades. In total, 79 injuries among 5674 groomers (1.4%) required medical attention.

    Conclusions and Relevance Grooming frequency and degree of grooming (ie, removing all pubic hair) are independent risk factors for injury. The present data may help identify injury-prone groomers and lead to safer grooming practices.