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    [–] Personal responsibility could help explain why conservatives are healthier than liberals, but it is likely that a host of factors are involved, suggests new research based on three studies (n = 602 total). mvea -2 points ago in science

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and eighth paragraph of the linked academic press release here:

    Personal responsibility could help explain why conservatives are healthier than liberals

    The findings provide one explanation for why conservatives tend to be healthier than liberals. But it is likely that a host of factors are involved.

    Journal Reference:

    Eugene Y. Chan,

    Political orientation and physical health: The role of personal responsibility,

    Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 141, 2019, Pages 117-122, ISSN 0191-8869,

    Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.01.005.

    Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886919300054

    Abstract:

    Are conservatives healthier than liberals? Aggregate and macro-level evidence have provided support for this possibility, yet individual-level analyses are missing and underlying processes unclear. We study how a person's political orientation might influence her physical health. We propose that a conservative orientation might promote physical health behaviors by promoting personal responsibility—and being personally-responsible means taking care of one's health. Across three studies, we find evidence for this hypothesis, with mediation evidence supporting our proposed personal responsibility account. We test our propositions on overall health (Study 1), greater physical activity engagement (Study 2), and smoking cessation (Study 3). Thus, we provide the first empirical illustration why conservatives may be healthier, offering implications for medical doctors and public health officials in encouraging healthy lifestyles.

    [–] Personal responsibility could help explain why conservatives are healthier than liberals, but it is likely that a host of factors are involved, suggests new research based on three studies (n = 602 total). mvea 2 points ago in psychology

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and eighth paragraph of the linked academic press release here:

    Personal responsibility could help explain why conservatives are healthier than liberals

    The findings provide one explanation for why conservatives tend to be healthier than liberals. But it is likely that a host of factors are involved.

    Journal Reference:

    Eugene Y. Chan,

    Political orientation and physical health: The role of personal responsibility,

    Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 141, 2019, Pages 117-122, ISSN 0191-8869,

    Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.01.005.

    Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886919300054

    Abstract:

    Are conservatives healthier than liberals? Aggregate and macro-level evidence have provided support for this possibility, yet individual-level analyses are missing and underlying processes unclear. We study how a person's political orientation might influence her physical health. We propose that a conservative orientation might promote physical health behaviors by promoting personal responsibility—and being personally-responsible means taking care of one's health. Across three studies, we find evidence for this hypothesis, with mediation evidence supporting our proposed personal responsibility account. We test our propositions on overall health (Study 1), greater physical activity engagement (Study 2), and smoking cessation (Study 3). Thus, we provide the first empirical illustration why conservatives may be healthier, offering implications for medical doctors and public health officials in encouraging healthy lifestyles.

    [–] OpenAI built a text generator so good, it’s considered too dangerous to release mvea 1 points ago in Futurology

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    [–] Breeding bees with "clean genes" could help prevent colony collapse. Some beehives seem to be generally "cleaner" than others, and worker bees in these colonies have been observed removing the sick and the dead from the hive, with at least 73 genes identified related to these hygiene behaviors. mvea 1 points ago in environment

    The post title is a copy and paste from the title, third and fifth paragraphs of the linked popular science article here:

    Breeding bees with "clean genes" could help prevent colony collapse

    Some beehives seem to be generally "cleaner" than others, and worker bees in these colonies have been observed removing the sick and the dead from the hive.

    When they compared the three genomes, the team was able to identify at least 73 genes that seemed to be related to hygiene behaviors.

    Journal Reference:

    Brock A Harpur, M Marta Guarna, Elizabeth Huxter, Heather Higo, Kyung-Mee Moon, Shelley E Hoover, Abdullah Ibrahim, Andony P Melathopoulos, Suresh Desai, Robert W Currie, Stephen F Pernal, Leonard J Foster, Amro Zayed.

    Integrative Genomics Reveals the Genetics and Evolution of the Honey Bee’s Social Immune System.

    Genome Biology and Evolution, 2019;

    DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evz018

    Link: https://academic.oup.com/gbe/advance-article/doi/10.1093/gbe/evz018/5318327

    Abstract

    Social organisms combat pathogens through individual innate immune responses or through social immunity –allobehaviours that limit pathogen transmission within groups. While we have a relatively detailed understanding of the genetics and evolution of the innate immunity in animals, we know little about social immunity. Addressing this knowledge gap is crucial for understanding how life-history traits influence immunity, and if trade-offs exist between innate and social immunity. Hygienic behaviour in the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, provides an excellent model for investigating the genetics and evolution of social immunity in animals. This heritable, colony-level behaviour is performed by nurse bees when they detect and remove infected or dead brood from the colony. We sequenced 125 haploid genomes from two artificially selected highly-hygienic populations and a baseline unselected population. Genomic contrasts allowed us to identify a minimum of 73 genes associated with hygienic behaviour. Many genes were within previously mapped genomic loci associated with hygienic behaviour, and were predictive of hygienic behaviour within the unselected population. These genes were often involved in neuronal development and sensory perception in solitary insects. We found that genes associated with hygienic behaviour have evidence of positive selection within honey bees (Apis), supporting the hypothesis that social immunity contributes to fitness. Our results indicate that genes influencing neurobiology and behaviour in solitary insects may have been co-opted to give rise to a novel and adaptive social immune phenotype in honey bees.

    [–] Breeding bees with "clean genes" could help prevent colony collapse. Some beehives seem to be generally "cleaner" than others, and worker bees in these colonies have been observed removing the sick and the dead from the hive, with at least 73 genes identified related to these hygiene behaviors. mvea 3 points ago in Futurology

    The post title is a copy and paste from the title, third and fifth paragraphs of the linked popular science article here:

    Breeding bees with "clean genes" could help prevent colony collapse

    Some beehives seem to be generally "cleaner" than others, and worker bees in these colonies have been observed removing the sick and the dead from the hive.

    When they compared the three genomes, the team was able to identify at least 73 genes that seemed to be related to hygiene behaviors.

    Journal Reference:

    Brock A Harpur, M Marta Guarna, Elizabeth Huxter, Heather Higo, Kyung-Mee Moon, Shelley E Hoover, Abdullah Ibrahim, Andony P Melathopoulos, Suresh Desai, Robert W Currie, Stephen F Pernal, Leonard J Foster, Amro Zayed.

    Integrative Genomics Reveals the Genetics and Evolution of the Honey Bee’s Social Immune System.

    Genome Biology and Evolution, 2019;

    DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evz018

    Link: https://academic.oup.com/gbe/advance-article/doi/10.1093/gbe/evz018/5318327

    Abstract

    Social organisms combat pathogens through individual innate immune responses or through social immunity –allobehaviours that limit pathogen transmission within groups. While we have a relatively detailed understanding of the genetics and evolution of the innate immunity in animals, we know little about social immunity. Addressing this knowledge gap is crucial for understanding how life-history traits influence immunity, and if trade-offs exist between innate and social immunity. Hygienic behaviour in the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, provides an excellent model for investigating the genetics and evolution of social immunity in animals. This heritable, colony-level behaviour is performed by nurse bees when they detect and remove infected or dead brood from the colony. We sequenced 125 haploid genomes from two artificially selected highly-hygienic populations and a baseline unselected population. Genomic contrasts allowed us to identify a minimum of 73 genes associated with hygienic behaviour. Many genes were within previously mapped genomic loci associated with hygienic behaviour, and were predictive of hygienic behaviour within the unselected population. These genes were often involved in neuronal development and sensory perception in solitary insects. We found that genes associated with hygienic behaviour have evidence of positive selection within honey bees (Apis), supporting the hypothesis that social immunity contributes to fitness. Our results indicate that genes influencing neurobiology and behaviour in solitary insects may have been co-opted to give rise to a novel and adaptive social immune phenotype in honey bees.

    [–] Breeding bees with "clean genes" could help prevent colony collapse, suggests a new study. Some beehives are "cleaner" than others, and worker bees in these colonies have been observed removing the sick and the dead from the hive, with at least 73 genes identified related to these hygiene behaviors. mvea 100 points ago in science

    The post title is a copy and paste from the title, third and fifth paragraphs of the linked popular science article here:

    Breeding bees with "clean genes" could help prevent colony collapse

    Some beehives seem to be generally "cleaner" than others, and worker bees in these colonies have been observed removing the sick and the dead from the hive.

    When they compared the three genomes, the team was able to identify at least 73 genes that seemed to be related to hygiene behaviors.

    Journal Reference:

    Brock A Harpur, M Marta Guarna, Elizabeth Huxter, Heather Higo, Kyung-Mee Moon, Shelley E Hoover, Abdullah Ibrahim, Andony P Melathopoulos, Suresh Desai, Robert W Currie, Stephen F Pernal, Leonard J Foster, Amro Zayed.

    Integrative Genomics Reveals the Genetics and Evolution of the Honey Bee’s Social Immune System.

    Genome Biology and Evolution, 2019;

    DOI: 10.1093/gbe/evz018

    Link: https://academic.oup.com/gbe/advance-article/doi/10.1093/gbe/evz018/5318327

    Abstract

    Social organisms combat pathogens through individual innate immune responses or through social immunity –allobehaviours that limit pathogen transmission within groups. While we have a relatively detailed understanding of the genetics and evolution of the innate immunity in animals, we know little about social immunity. Addressing this knowledge gap is crucial for understanding how life-history traits influence immunity, and if trade-offs exist between innate and social immunity. Hygienic behaviour in the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, provides an excellent model for investigating the genetics and evolution of social immunity in animals. This heritable, colony-level behaviour is performed by nurse bees when they detect and remove infected or dead brood from the colony. We sequenced 125 haploid genomes from two artificially selected highly-hygienic populations and a baseline unselected population. Genomic contrasts allowed us to identify a minimum of 73 genes associated with hygienic behaviour. Many genes were within previously mapped genomic loci associated with hygienic behaviour, and were predictive of hygienic behaviour within the unselected population. These genes were often involved in neuronal development and sensory perception in solitary insects. We found that genes associated with hygienic behaviour have evidence of positive selection within honey bees (Apis), supporting the hypothesis that social immunity contributes to fitness. Our results indicate that genes influencing neurobiology and behaviour in solitary insects may have been co-opted to give rise to a novel and adaptive social immune phenotype in honey bees.

    [–] Depression appeared to be reversed in male mice by activating gene that helps excite neurons, suggests new study. Directly activating a gene important to exciting our excitatory neurons, associated with major depression, may help reverse classic symptoms like social isolation and loss of interest. mvea 4 points ago in science

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and first paragraph of the linked academic press release here:

    Depression reversed in male mice by activating gene that helps excite neurons

    Directly activating a gene important to exciting our excitatory neurons and associated with major depression may help turn around classic symptoms like social isolation and loss of interest, at least for males, scientists report.

    Journal Reference:

    SIRT1 in forebrain excitatory neurons produces sexually dimorphic effects on depression-related behaviors and modulates neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex

    Yun Lei, Jiangong Wang, Dan Wang, Chen Li, Bin Liu, Xing Fang, Jingjing You, Ming Guo & Xin-Yun Lu

    Molecular Psychiatry (2019)

    Link: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41380-019-0352-1

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-019-0352-1

    Abstract

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, is a key regulator of cellular metabolism. Recent genome-wide association studies identified genetic variants of SIRT1 linked to major depressive disorders. SIRT1 is widely expressed in the brain; however, neuronal substrates that mediate SIRT1 action on depressive behaviors remain largely unknown. Here we show that selective deletion of SIRT1 in forebrain excitatory neurons causes depression-like phenotypes in male but not female mice. AAV-Cre-mediated SIRT1 knockdown in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult male mice induces depressive-like behaviors. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that loss of SIRT1 decreases intrinsic excitability and spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission in layer V pyramidal neurons in the prelimbic mPFC. Consistent with neuronal hypoexcitability, SIRT1 knockout reduces mitochondrial density and expression levels of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in the prelimbic mPFC. When a SIRT1 activator (SRT2104) is injected into the mPFC or lateral ventricle of wild-type mice, it reverses chronic unpredictable stress-induced anhedonia and behavioral despair, indicating an antidepressant-like effect. These results suggest that SIRT1 in mPFC excitatory neurons is required for normal neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission and regulates depression-related behaviors in a sex-specific manner.

    [–] Depression appeared to be reversed in male mice by activating gene that helps excite neurons, suggests new study. Directly activating a gene important to exciting our excitatory neurons, associated with major depression, may help reverse classic symptoms like social isolation and loss of interest. mvea 1 points ago in psychology

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and first paragraph of the linked academic press release here:

    Depression reversed in male mice by activating gene that helps excite neurons

    Directly activating a gene important to exciting our excitatory neurons and associated with major depression may help turn around classic symptoms like social isolation and loss of interest, at least for males, scientists report.

    Journal Reference:

    SIRT1 in forebrain excitatory neurons produces sexually dimorphic effects on depression-related behaviors and modulates neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex

    Yun Lei, Jiangong Wang, Dan Wang, Chen Li, Bin Liu, Xing Fang, Jingjing You, Ming Guo & Xin-Yun Lu

    Molecular Psychiatry (2019)

    Link: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41380-019-0352-1

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-019-0352-1

    Abstract

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, is a key regulator of cellular metabolism. Recent genome-wide association studies identified genetic variants of SIRT1 linked to major depressive disorders. SIRT1 is widely expressed in the brain; however, neuronal substrates that mediate SIRT1 action on depressive behaviors remain largely unknown. Here we show that selective deletion of SIRT1 in forebrain excitatory neurons causes depression-like phenotypes in male but not female mice. AAV-Cre-mediated SIRT1 knockdown in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult male mice induces depressive-like behaviors. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that loss of SIRT1 decreases intrinsic excitability and spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission in layer V pyramidal neurons in the prelimbic mPFC. Consistent with neuronal hypoexcitability, SIRT1 knockout reduces mitochondrial density and expression levels of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in the prelimbic mPFC. When a SIRT1 activator (SRT2104) is injected into the mPFC or lateral ventricle of wild-type mice, it reverses chronic unpredictable stress-induced anhedonia and behavioral despair, indicating an antidepressant-like effect. These results suggest that SIRT1 in mPFC excitatory neurons is required for normal neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission and regulates depression-related behaviors in a sex-specific manner.

    [–] Immersive virtual reality has been shown to help children with autism with nearly 45% remaining free from their fears and phobias six months after treatment (one session introducing CBT and four VR sessions), finds randomised controlled trial involving 32 children with autism aged 8 – 14 years. mvea 5 points ago in science

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the subtitle of the linked academic press release here:

    Immersive virtual reality has been shown to help children with autism with nearly 45% remaining free from their fears and phobias six months after treatment.

    Journal References:

    Morag Maskey, Jacqui Rodgers, Victoria Grahame, Magdalena Glod, Emma Honey, Julia Kinnear, Marie Labus, Jenny Milne, Dimitrios Minos, Helen McConachie, Jeremy R. Parr.

    A Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of Immersive Virtual Reality Treatment with Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Specific Phobias in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2019;

    DOI: 10.1007/s10803-018-3861-x

    Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10803-018-3861-x

    Abstract

    We examined the feasibility and acceptability of using an immersive virtual reality environment (VRE) alongside cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with autism experiencing specific phobia. Thirty-two participants were randomised to treatment or control. Treatment involved one session introducing CBT techniques and four VRE sessions, delivered by local clinical therapists. Change in target behaviour was independently rated. Two weeks after treatment, four treatment participants (25%) and no control participants were responders; at 6 months after treatment, six (38%) treatment and no control participants were responders. At 6 months post-treatment, symptoms had worsened for one treatment and five control (untreated) participants. Brief VRE exposure with CBT is feasible and acceptable to deliver through child clinical services and is effective for some participants.

    [–] Immersive virtual reality has been shown to help children with autism with nearly 45% remaining free from their fears and phobias six months after treatment (one session introducing CBT and four VR sessions), finds randomised controlled trial involving 32 children with autism aged 8 – 14 years. mvea 5 points ago in psychology

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the subtitle of the linked academic press release here:

    Immersive virtual reality has been shown to help children with autism with nearly 45% remaining free from their fears and phobias six months after treatment.

    Journal References:

    Morag Maskey, Jacqui Rodgers, Victoria Grahame, Magdalena Glod, Emma Honey, Julia Kinnear, Marie Labus, Jenny Milne, Dimitrios Minos, Helen McConachie, Jeremy R. Parr.

    A Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of Immersive Virtual Reality Treatment with Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Specific Phobias in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2019;

    DOI: 10.1007/s10803-018-3861-x

    Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10803-018-3861-x

    Abstract

    We examined the feasibility and acceptability of using an immersive virtual reality environment (VRE) alongside cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with autism experiencing specific phobia. Thirty-two participants were randomised to treatment or control. Treatment involved one session introducing CBT techniques and four VRE sessions, delivered by local clinical therapists. Change in target behaviour was independently rated. Two weeks after treatment, four treatment participants (25%) and no control participants were responders; at 6 months after treatment, six (38%) treatment and no control participants were responders. At 6 months post-treatment, symptoms had worsened for one treatment and five control (untreated) participants. Brief VRE exposure with CBT is feasible and acceptable to deliver through child clinical services and is effective for some participants.

    [–] Virtual reality therapy treats autism phobias - Immersive virtual reality has been shown to help children with autism with nearly 45% remaining free from their fears and phobias six months after treatment, finds new randomized controlled trial. mvea 1 points ago in Futurology

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and subtitle of the linked academic press release here:

    Virtual reality therapy treats autism phobias

    Immersive virtual reality has been shown to help children with autism with nearly 45% remaining free from their fears and phobias six months after treatment.

    Journal References:

    Morag Maskey, Jacqui Rodgers, Victoria Grahame, Magdalena Glod, Emma Honey, Julia Kinnear, Marie Labus, Jenny Milne, Dimitrios Minos, Helen McConachie, Jeremy R. Parr.

    A Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of Immersive Virtual Reality Treatment with Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Specific Phobias in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2019;

    DOI: 10.1007/s10803-018-3861-x

    Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10803-018-3861-x

    Abstract

    We examined the feasibility and acceptability of using an immersive virtual reality environment (VRE) alongside cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with autism experiencing specific phobia. Thirty-two participants were randomised to treatment or control. Treatment involved one session introducing CBT techniques and four VRE sessions, delivered by local clinical therapists. Change in target behaviour was independently rated. Two weeks after treatment, four treatment participants (25%) and no control participants were responders; at 6 months after treatment, six (38%) treatment and no control participants were responders. At 6 months post-treatment, symptoms had worsened for one treatment and five control (untreated) participants. Brief VRE exposure with CBT is feasible and acceptable to deliver through child clinical services and is effective for some participants.

    [–] Virtual reality therapy treats autism phobias - Immersive virtual reality has been shown to help children with autism with nearly 45% remaining free from their fears and phobias six months after treatment mvea 1 points ago in technology

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and subtitle of the linked academic press release here:

    Virtual reality therapy treats autism phobias

    Immersive virtual reality has been shown to help children with autism with nearly 45% remaining free from their fears and phobias six months after treatment.

    Journal References:

    Morag Maskey, Jacqui Rodgers, Victoria Grahame, Magdalena Glod, Emma Honey, Julia Kinnear, Marie Labus, Jenny Milne, Dimitrios Minos, Helen McConachie, Jeremy R. Parr.

    A Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of Immersive Virtual Reality Treatment with Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Specific Phobias in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2019;

    DOI: 10.1007/s10803-018-3861-x

    Link: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10803-018-3861-x

    Abstract

    We examined the feasibility and acceptability of using an immersive virtual reality environment (VRE) alongside cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with autism experiencing specific phobia. Thirty-two participants were randomised to treatment or control. Treatment involved one session introducing CBT techniques and four VRE sessions, delivered by local clinical therapists. Change in target behaviour was independently rated. Two weeks after treatment, four treatment participants (25%) and no control participants were responders; at 6 months after treatment, six (38%) treatment and no control participants were responders. At 6 months post-treatment, symptoms had worsened for one treatment and five control (untreated) participants. Brief VRE exposure with CBT is feasible and acceptable to deliver through child clinical services and is effective for some participants.