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    [–] Researchers succeeded in neutralizing what they believe is a primary factor in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, opening the door to development of a vaccine or drug that could be administered before age 40, and taken for life, to potentially prevent the disease in 50 to 80 percent of at-risk adults. mvea 1 points ago in Health

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and first paragraph of the linked academic press release here:

    Research suggests path to vaccine or drug for late-onset Alzheimer’s

    UT Southwestern researchers have succeeded in neutralizing what they believe is a primary factor in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, opening the door to development of a drug that could be administered before age 40, and taken for life, to potentially prevent the disease in 50 to 80 percent of at-risk adults.

    Journal Reference:

    Xunde Xian, Theresa Pohlkamp, Murat S Durakoglugil, Connie H Wong, Jürgen K Beck, Courtney Lane-Donovan, Florian Plattner, Joachim Herz.

    Reversal of ApoE4-induced recycling block as a novel prevention approach for Alzheimer’s disease.

    eLife, 2018; 7

    DOI: 10.7554/eLife.40048

    Link: https://elifesciences.org/articles/40048

    Abstract

    ApoE4 genotype is the most prevalent and also clinically most important risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Available evidence suggests that the root cause for this increased risk is a trafficking defect at the level of the early endosome. ApoE4 differs from the most common ApoE3 isoform by a single amino acid that increases its isoelectric point and promotes unfolding of ApoE4 upon endosomal vesicle acidification. We found that pharmacological and genetic inhibition of NHE6, the primary proton leak channel in the early endosome, in rodents completely reverses the ApoE4-induced recycling block of the ApoE receptor Apoer2/Lrp8 and the AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors that are regulated by, and co-endocytosed in a complex with, Apoer2. Moreover, NHE6 inhibition restores the Reelin-mediated modulation of excitatory synapses that is impaired by ApoE4. Our findings suggest a novel potential approach for the prevention of late-onset AD.

    [–] Researchers succeeded in neutralizing what they believe is a primary factor in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, opening the door to development of a vaccine or drug that could be administered before age 40, and taken for life, to potentially prevent the disease in 50 to 80 percent of at-risk adults. mvea 1 points ago in Futurology

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and first paragraph of the linked academic press release here:

    Research suggests path to vaccine or drug for late-onset Alzheimer’s

    UT Southwestern researchers have succeeded in neutralizing what they believe is a primary factor in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, opening the door to development of a drug that could be administered before age 40, and taken for life, to potentially prevent the disease in 50 to 80 percent of at-risk adults.

    Journal Reference:

    Xunde Xian, Theresa Pohlkamp, Murat S Durakoglugil, Connie H Wong, Jürgen K Beck, Courtney Lane-Donovan, Florian Plattner, Joachim Herz.

    Reversal of ApoE4-induced recycling block as a novel prevention approach for Alzheimer’s disease.

    eLife, 2018; 7

    DOI: 10.7554/eLife.40048

    Link: https://elifesciences.org/articles/40048

    Abstract

    ApoE4 genotype is the most prevalent and also clinically most important risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Available evidence suggests that the root cause for this increased risk is a trafficking defect at the level of the early endosome. ApoE4 differs from the most common ApoE3 isoform by a single amino acid that increases its isoelectric point and promotes unfolding of ApoE4 upon endosomal vesicle acidification. We found that pharmacological and genetic inhibition of NHE6, the primary proton leak channel in the early endosome, in rodents completely reverses the ApoE4-induced recycling block of the ApoE receptor Apoer2/Lrp8 and the AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors that are regulated by, and co-endocytosed in a complex with, Apoer2. Moreover, NHE6 inhibition restores the Reelin-mediated modulation of excitatory synapses that is impaired by ApoE4. Our findings suggest a novel potential approach for the prevention of late-onset AD.

    [–] Researchers succeeded in neutralizing what they believe is a primary factor in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, opening the door to development of a vaccine or drug that could be administered before age 40, and taken for life, to potentially prevent the disease in 50 to 80 percent of at-risk adults. mvea 1 points ago in science

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and first paragraph of the linked academic press release here:

    Research suggests path to vaccine or drug for late-onset Alzheimer’s

    UT Southwestern researchers have succeeded in neutralizing what they believe is a primary factor in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, opening the door to development of a drug that could be administered before age 40, and taken for life, to potentially prevent the disease in 50 to 80 percent of at-risk adults.

    Journal Reference:

    Xunde Xian, Theresa Pohlkamp, Murat S Durakoglugil, Connie H Wong, Jürgen K Beck, Courtney Lane-Donovan, Florian Plattner, Joachim Herz.

    Reversal of ApoE4-induced recycling block as a novel prevention approach for Alzheimer’s disease.

    eLife, 2018; 7

    DOI: 10.7554/eLife.40048

    Link: https://elifesciences.org/articles/40048

    Abstract

    ApoE4 genotype is the most prevalent and also clinically most important risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Available evidence suggests that the root cause for this increased risk is a trafficking defect at the level of the early endosome. ApoE4 differs from the most common ApoE3 isoform by a single amino acid that increases its isoelectric point and promotes unfolding of ApoE4 upon endosomal vesicle acidification. We found that pharmacological and genetic inhibition of NHE6, the primary proton leak channel in the early endosome, in rodents completely reverses the ApoE4-induced recycling block of the ApoE receptor Apoer2/Lrp8 and the AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors that are regulated by, and co-endocytosed in a complex with, Apoer2. Moreover, NHE6 inhibition restores the Reelin-mediated modulation of excitatory synapses that is impaired by ApoE4. Our findings suggest a novel potential approach for the prevention of late-onset AD.

    [–] MIT invents method to shrink objects to nanoscale using basic lab equipment mvea 1 points ago in Futurology

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    [–] MIT can shrink 3D objects down to nanoscale versions mvea 1 points ago in Futurology

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    Rule 9 - Avoid posting content that is a duplicate of content posted within the last 7 days.

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    [–] MIT invents method to shrink objects to nanoscale mvea 1 points ago in Futurology

    Thanks for contributing. However, your submission was removed from /r/Futurology

    Rule 9 - Avoid posting content that is a duplicate of content posted within the last 7 days.

    https://www.reddit.com/r/Futurology/comments/a728t1/mit_can_shrink_3d_objects_down_to_nanoscale/

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    [–] Skin vaccine using microneedle patch with inactivated RSV virus and an immune-stimulating compound as tested in mice is effective against RSV, a common respiratory disease that can be serious for young children. For children under 1 year old in the US, RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis. mvea 1 points ago in science

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and first and third paragraphs of the linked academic press release here:

    Vaccine Using Microneedle Patch With RSV Virus, Immune-Stimulating Compound Is Effective Against RSV

    Skin vaccination using a microneedle patch that contains the inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and a compound that stimulates immune responses to the virus has been found to enhance protection against this serious disease and reduce inflammation in the body after exposure to the virus, according to a study led by Georgia State University.

    RSV is a common respiratory disease, but it can be serious for young children, patients with compromised immune systems and elderly people. For children under 1 year old in the United States, RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis, inflammation of the small airways in the lung and pneumonia, infection of the lungs.

    Journal Reference:

    Soojin Park, Youri Lee, Young-Man Kwon, Young-Tae Lee, Ki-Hye Kim, Eun-Ju Ko, Jae Hwan Jung, Manki Song, Barney Graham, Mark R. Prausnitz, Sang-Moo Kang.

    Vaccination by microneedle patch with inactivated respiratory syncytial virus and monophosphoryl lipid A enhances the protective efficacy and diminishes inflammatory disease after challenge.

    PLOS ONE, 2018; 13 (10): e0205071

    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205071

    Link: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0205071

    Abstract

    Intramuscular (IM) vaccination with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) failed in clinical trials due to vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease. To test the efficacy of skin vaccination against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), we investigated the immunogenicity, efficacy, and inflammatory disease after microneedle (MN) patch delivery of FI-RSV vaccine (FI-RSV MN) to the mouse skin with or without an adjuvant of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Compared to IM vaccination, MN patch delivery of FI-RSV was more effective in clearing lung viral loads and preventing weight loss, and in diminishing inflammation, infiltrating immune cells, and T helper type 2 (Th2) CD4 T cell responses after RSV challenge. With MPL adjuvant, MN patch delivery of FI-RSV significantly increased the immunogenicity and efficacy as well as preventing RSV disease as evidenced by lung viral clearance and avoiding pulmonary histopathology. Improved efficacy and prevention of disease by FI-RSV MN with MPL were correlated with no sign of airway resistance, lower levels of Th2 cytokines and infiltrating innate inflammatory cells, and higher levels of Th1 T cell responses into the lung. This study suggests that MN patch delivery of RSV vaccines to the skin with MPL adjuvant would be a promising vaccination method.

    [–] Skin vaccine using microneedle patch with inactivated RSV virus and an immune-stimulating compound as tested in mice is effective against RSV, a common respiratory disease that can be serious for young children. For children under 1 year old in the US, RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis. mvea 1 points ago in Futurology

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and first and third paragraphs of the linked academic press release here:

    Vaccine Using Microneedle Patch With RSV Virus, Immune-Stimulating Compound Is Effective Against RSV

    Skin vaccination using a microneedle patch that contains the inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and a compound that stimulates immune responses to the virus has been found to enhance protection against this serious disease and reduce inflammation in the body after exposure to the virus, according to a study led by Georgia State University.

    RSV is a common respiratory disease, but it can be serious for young children, patients with compromised immune systems and elderly people. For children under 1 year old in the United States, RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis, inflammation of the small airways in the lung and pneumonia, infection of the lungs.

    Journal Reference:

    Soojin Park, Youri Lee, Young-Man Kwon, Young-Tae Lee, Ki-Hye Kim, Eun-Ju Ko, Jae Hwan Jung, Manki Song, Barney Graham, Mark R. Prausnitz, Sang-Moo Kang.

    Vaccination by microneedle patch with inactivated respiratory syncytial virus and monophosphoryl lipid A enhances the protective efficacy and diminishes inflammatory disease after challenge.

    PLOS ONE, 2018; 13 (10): e0205071

    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205071

    Link: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0205071

    Abstract

    Intramuscular (IM) vaccination with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) failed in clinical trials due to vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease. To test the efficacy of skin vaccination against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), we investigated the immunogenicity, efficacy, and inflammatory disease after microneedle (MN) patch delivery of FI-RSV vaccine (FI-RSV MN) to the mouse skin with or without an adjuvant of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Compared to IM vaccination, MN patch delivery of FI-RSV was more effective in clearing lung viral loads and preventing weight loss, and in diminishing inflammation, infiltrating immune cells, and T helper type 2 (Th2) CD4 T cell responses after RSV challenge. With MPL adjuvant, MN patch delivery of FI-RSV significantly increased the immunogenicity and efficacy as well as preventing RSV disease as evidenced by lung viral clearance and avoiding pulmonary histopathology. Improved efficacy and prevention of disease by FI-RSV MN with MPL were correlated with no sign of airway resistance, lower levels of Th2 cytokines and infiltrating innate inflammatory cells, and higher levels of Th1 T cell responses into the lung. This study suggests that MN patch delivery of RSV vaccines to the skin with MPL adjuvant would be a promising vaccination method.

    [–] Skin vaccine using microneedle patch with inactivated RSV virus and an immune-stimulating compound as tested in mice is effective against RSV, a common respiratory disease that can be serious for young children. For children under 1 year old in the US, RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis. mvea 1 points ago in Health

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and first and third paragraphs of the linked academic press release here:

    Vaccine Using Microneedle Patch With RSV Virus, Immune-Stimulating Compound Is Effective Against RSV

    Skin vaccination using a microneedle patch that contains the inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and a compound that stimulates immune responses to the virus has been found to enhance protection against this serious disease and reduce inflammation in the body after exposure to the virus, according to a study led by Georgia State University.

    RSV is a common respiratory disease, but it can be serious for young children, patients with compromised immune systems and elderly people. For children under 1 year old in the United States, RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis, inflammation of the small airways in the lung and pneumonia, infection of the lungs.

    Journal Reference:

    Soojin Park, Youri Lee, Young-Man Kwon, Young-Tae Lee, Ki-Hye Kim, Eun-Ju Ko, Jae Hwan Jung, Manki Song, Barney Graham, Mark R. Prausnitz, Sang-Moo Kang.

    Vaccination by microneedle patch with inactivated respiratory syncytial virus and monophosphoryl lipid A enhances the protective efficacy and diminishes inflammatory disease after challenge.

    PLOS ONE, 2018; 13 (10): e0205071

    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205071

    Link: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0205071

    Abstract

    Intramuscular (IM) vaccination with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) failed in clinical trials due to vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease. To test the efficacy of skin vaccination against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), we investigated the immunogenicity, efficacy, and inflammatory disease after microneedle (MN) patch delivery of FI-RSV vaccine (FI-RSV MN) to the mouse skin with or without an adjuvant of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Compared to IM vaccination, MN patch delivery of FI-RSV was more effective in clearing lung viral loads and preventing weight loss, and in diminishing inflammation, infiltrating immune cells, and T helper type 2 (Th2) CD4 T cell responses after RSV challenge. With MPL adjuvant, MN patch delivery of FI-RSV significantly increased the immunogenicity and efficacy as well as preventing RSV disease as evidenced by lung viral clearance and avoiding pulmonary histopathology. Improved efficacy and prevention of disease by FI-RSV MN with MPL were correlated with no sign of airway resistance, lower levels of Th2 cytokines and infiltrating innate inflammatory cells, and higher levels of Th1 T cell responses into the lung. This study suggests that MN patch delivery of RSV vaccines to the skin with MPL adjuvant would be a promising vaccination method.

    [–] Surgeons Under Stress Make More Mistakes in the Operating Room: A new study reveals that during stressful moments in the operating room, surgeons make up to 66 percent more mistakes on patients. mvea 1 points ago in science

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and first paragraph of the linked academic press release here:

    Surgeons Under Stress Make More Mistakes in the Operating Room

    A new study reveals that during stressful moments in the operating room, surgeons make up to 66 percent more mistakes on patients.

    Journal Reference:

    Grantcharov, P. D., Boillat, T. , Elkabany, S. , Wac, K. and Rivas, H. (2018),

    Acute mental stress and surgical performance.

    BJS Open. doi:10.1002/bjs5.104

    Link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/bjs5.104

    Abstract

    Background

    Stress has been shown to impact adversely on multiple facets critical to optimal performance. Advancements in wearable technology can reduce barriers to observing stress during surgery. This study aimed to investigate the association between acute intraoperative mental stress and technical surgical performance.

    Methods

    Continuous electrocardiogram data for a single attending surgeon were captured during surgical procedures to obtain heart rate variability (HRV) measures that were used as a proxy for acute mental stress. Two different measures were used: root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN). Technical surgical performance was assessed on the Operating Room Black Box® platform using the Generic Error Rating Tool (GERT). Both HRV recording and procedure video recording were time‐stamped. Surgical procedures were fragmented to non‐overlapping intervals of 1, 2 and 5 min, and subjected to data analysis. An event was defined as any deviation that caused injury to the patient or posed a risk of harm.

    Results

    Rates of events were significantly higher (47–66 per cent higher) in the higher stress quantiles than in the lower stress quantiles for all measured interval lengths using both proxy measures for acute mental stress. The strongest association was observed using 1‐min intervals with RMSSD as the HRV measure (P < 0·001).

    Conclusion

    There is an association between measures of acute mental stress and worse technical surgical performance. Further study will help delineate the interdependence of these variables and identify triggers for increased stress levels to improve surgical safety.

    [–] Surgeons Under Stress Make More Mistakes in the Operating Room: A new study reveals that during stressful moments in the operating room, surgeons make up to 66 percent more mistakes on patients. mvea 1 points ago in Health

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and first paragraph of the linked academic press release here:

    Surgeons Under Stress Make More Mistakes in the Operating Room

    A new study reveals that during stressful moments in the operating room, surgeons make up to 66 percent more mistakes on patients.

    Journal Reference:

    Grantcharov, P. D., Boillat, T. , Elkabany, S. , Wac, K. and Rivas, H. (2018),

    Acute mental stress and surgical performance.

    BJS Open. doi:10.1002/bjs5.104

    Link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/bjs5.104

    Abstract

    Background

    Stress has been shown to impact adversely on multiple facets critical to optimal performance. Advancements in wearable technology can reduce barriers to observing stress during surgery. This study aimed to investigate the association between acute intraoperative mental stress and technical surgical performance.

    Methods

    Continuous electrocardiogram data for a single attending surgeon were captured during surgical procedures to obtain heart rate variability (HRV) measures that were used as a proxy for acute mental stress. Two different measures were used: root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) and standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN). Technical surgical performance was assessed on the Operating Room Black Box® platform using the Generic Error Rating Tool (GERT). Both HRV recording and procedure video recording were time‐stamped. Surgical procedures were fragmented to non‐overlapping intervals of 1, 2 and 5 min, and subjected to data analysis. An event was defined as any deviation that caused injury to the patient or posed a risk of harm.

    Results

    Rates of events were significantly higher (47–66 per cent higher) in the higher stress quantiles than in the lower stress quantiles for all measured interval lengths using both proxy measures for acute mental stress. The strongest association was observed using 1‐min intervals with RMSSD as the HRV measure (P < 0·001).

    Conclusion

    There is an association between measures of acute mental stress and worse technical surgical performance. Further study will help delineate the interdependence of these variables and identify triggers for increased stress levels to improve surgical safety.

    [–] New cervical cancer test has 100 percent detection rate, detecting all of the cancers in a randomised clinical screening trial of 15,744 women, outperforming both the current Pap smear and human papillomavirus (HPV) test at a reduced cost, according to a new study. mvea 33 points ago in science

    The title of the post is a copy and paste from the title and subtitle of the linked academic press release here:

    New cervical cancer test has 100 per cent detection rate

    A new test for cervical cancer was found to detect all of the cancers in a randomised clinical screening trial of 15,744 women, outperforming both the current Pap smear and human papillomavirus (HPV) test at a reduced cost, according to a study led by Queen Mary University of London.

    Journal Reference:

    Darrel A. Cook, Mel Krajden, Adam R. Brentnall, Lovedeep Gondara, Tracy Chan, Jennifer H. Law, Laurie W. Smith, Dirk J. Niekerk, Gina S. Ogilvie, Andrew J. Coldman, Rhian Warman, Caroline Reuter, Jack Cuzick, Attila T. Lorincz.

    Evaluation of a validated methylation triage signature for human papillomavirus positive women in the HPV FOCAL cervical cancer screening trial.

    International Journal of Cancer, 2018;

    DOI: 10.1002/ijc.31976

    Link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ijc.31976

    Abstract

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)‐based cervical cancer screening requires triage of HPV positive women to identify those at risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or worse. We conducted a blinded case‐control study within the HPV FOCAL randomized cervical cancer screening trial of women aged 25‐65 to examine whether baseline methylation testing using the S5 classifier provided triage performance similar to an algorithm relying on cytology and HPV genotyping. Groups were randomly selected from 257 women with known HPV/cytology results and pathology outcomes. Group 1: 104 HPV positive (HPV+), abnormal cytology (54 CIN2/3; 50 <CIN2); Group 2: 103 HPV+, normal cytology with HPV persistence at 12 mo. (53 CIN2/3; 50 <CIN2); Group 3: 50 HPV+, normal cytology with HPV clearance at 12 mo. (assumed <CIN2). For the combined groups, S5 risk score CIN2/3 relative sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were compared with other triage approaches. Methylation showed a highly significant increasing trend with disease severity. For CIN3, S5 relative sensitivity and specificity were: 93.2% (95%CI: 81.4‐98.0) and 41.8% (35.2‐48.8), compared to 86.4% (75.0‐95.7) and 49.8% (43.1‐56.6) respectively for combined abnormal cytology/HPV16/18 positivity (differences not significant); adjusted PPVs were 18.2% (16.2‐20.4) and 19.3% (16.6‐22.2) respectively. S5 was also positive in baseline specimens from eight cancers detected during or after trial participation. The S5 methylation score had high sensitivity and PPV for CIN3, compatible with US and European thresholds for colposcopy referral. Methylation signatures can identify most HPV positive women at increased risk of cervical cancer from their baseline screening specimens.